Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) Project: 
(South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission. By Craig Pratt)
Each indicator is accompanied by a short form key name, detailed definition, list of key words that describe the main factors for which it is a proxy. Cat = Categorisation where: REI = Risk exposure sub-index; IRI = Intrinsic resilience sub-index; EDI = Environmental degradation sub-index; Met = Meteorological; G = Geological; CC = Intrinsic country characteristics; B = biological and A = Anthropogenic indicators.
# Cat Key name Indicator text Main proxy factors
1 REI Sea Surface Greatest average annual deviation in Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) in the last 5 Coral bleaching; fisheries;
  Met Temperature years as compared with the long term mean (30 years) currents; eddies; ENSO;
2 REI High winds Number of days over the last five years during which the maximum recorded wind Cyclones; tornadoes; storms;
  Met   speed (3 sec wind gusts) is greater than 20% higher than the average maximum erosion
      wind speed for that month. (Use 30-year average for each month as reference points  
      and data to be accumulated over all reference climate stations and be divided by the  
      number of stations)  
3 REI Dry periods Number of months over the last five years during which rainfall is greater than 20% Droughts; dry spells; water
  Met   lower than the 30 year average for that month (over all reference climate stations / resources
      number of climate stations)  
4 REI Wet periods Number of months over the last five years during which rainfall was greater than 20% Floods; wet spells; coral reefs;
  Met   higher than the 30 year average for that month (over all reference stations / number pollution; erosion
      of climate stations)  
5 REI Heat waves Number of days over the last five years in which the maximum temperature was Heat waves; desertification;
  Met   greater than 5°C higher than the mean monthly maximum (reference mean is from water resources; temperature
      the 30 year average) (over all reference stations/ number of climate stations) stress
6 REI Cold snaps Number of days over the last five years in which the minimum temperature was Cold snaps; temperature stress
  Met   greater than 5°C lower than the mean monthly minimum (reference mean from the  
      30 year average) (over all reference stations/ number of climate stations)  
7 REI Volcanic Number of volcanoes with potential for eruption greater than or equal to Volcanic Eruptions; landslides; geysers;
  G eruptions Explosive Index of 4 (VEI 4) within 100km of country land boundary per area of land gas; fires; ash; dust; marine kills
8 REI Earthquakes Cumulative earthquake energy within 100km of country land boundaries per land Earthquakes; landslides
  G   area with Local Magnitude (ML) greater than or equal to six (>= 6.0) and less than or  
      equal to depth of fifteen kilometres (<= 15km) over 5 years  
9 REI Tsunamis Number of tsunamis or storms surges with run up greater than 2 metres above Mean Tidal waves; erosion; habitat
  G   High Water Spring tide (MHWS) per 100km coastline since 1900 disturbance and organism kills
10 IRI Land area Total land area (km2) Richness of habitat types;
  CC     refugia; species redundancy and
11 IRI Fragmentation Ratio of length of shoreline or land border to total land area Fragmentation; erosion;
  CC or “islandness”   exposure at borders or coasts
12 IRI Isolation Distance to nearest continent within 10 degrees latitude (km) Proximity to refugia;
  CC     recolonisation; biodiversity
13 IRI Vertical relief Altitude range (highest point subtract the lowest point in country) Biodiversity of habitats and
  CC     species
14 IRI Lowlands Percent of land area less than 10 metres above sea level Floods, areas of accumulation of
  CC     pollution, sensitive habitats
15 IRI Coastal Percent of land area below 10 metres in elevation within 2 kilometres to coast Storm surges, cyclones, erosion
  CC vulnerability composed of unconsolidated sediments (excluding coral reefs) by waves, rivers, storms
16 IRI Endemic Number of known endemic species per square kilometre land area Biodiversity; unique species
  CC species    
17 REI Pathogens and Number of reported (and verified) organism outbreaks (pathogens, blooms, plaques Ecosystem stress;
  B plagues etc) over the last five years per land area eutrophication; pollution;
        introductions; disturbance
18 REI Potential for Total tonnage of freight imported per year per square kilometre of land area Potential risk of introductions,
  B introductions   oil, pollution
19 EDI Introductions Number of introduced species per square kilometre land area (IUCN Definitions) Past introductions; biodiversity
20 EDI Endangered Number of endangered and threatened species per square kilometre land area Biodiversity; keystone species
  B species (IUCN Definitions)  
21 EDI Extinctions Number of species known to have become extinct since 1900 per square kilometre Biodiversity; ecosystem
  B   land area (IUCN Definitions) structure and function
22 EDI Natural Percentage of natural and regrowth vegetation remaining (e.g. forests, mangroves. Ecological redundancy;
  B vegetation prairies, saltmarshes, tundra, desert, savannah) biodiversity; ecosystem services
        and goods
23 EDI Intensive Tonnage of intensively farmed animal products (includes aquaculture, pigs, chickens, Pollution; eutrophication
  B farming cattle, etc.) produced per year per square kilometre land area  
24 EDI Fisheries Percent of fisheries stocks over-fished (FFA/FAO definitions) Resource depletion
25 EDI Coastal Density of people living in coastal settlements (i.e. with a city centre within 100km of Stress on coastal ecosystems,
  A settlements the coast) pollution, eutrophication,
26 REI Human Total human population density (number per km2 land area) All incidental damage caused by
  A population   human activities
27 REI Human Annual human population growth rate (average over last five years) Potential for future incidental
  A population   damage caused by human
    growth rate   activities
28 REI Rate of loss of Net percentage of land area changed by removal of natural vegetation over the last Potential for future loss of
  A natural five years natural vegetation, habitat loss
29 REI Tourists Annual number of international tourists multiplied by the average length of stay in the Additional load of all human
  A   country over one year per land area (over the last five years) impac ts not reported in
        population statistics
30 REI Wastewaters Litres of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater discharged per day per square Eutrophication; water pollution
  A   kilometre of land area  
31 REI Production of Total net tonnage of generated and imported toxic, hazardous and municipal wastes Pollution; habitat destruction;
  A hazardous and per square kilometre land area average last 10 years groundwater damage
32 REI Waste Mean percent of hazardous, toxic and municipal waste “effectively” managed or Proportion of wastes rendered
  A treatment treated per year less harmful
33 REI Oil spills Number of spills of oil and hazardous substances greater than1000 litres during the Pollution
  A   last five years on land, in rivers or within territorial waters per square kilometre of  
      land area  
34 REI Toxic industries Number of nuclear, chemical and other major industrial facilities (e.g. oil rigs) that Pollution; acid rain
  A   could cause significant environmental damage per square kilometre land area  
35 REI Vehicle Number of vehicles per square kilometre of land area Habitat damage; habitat
  A Pollution   fragmentation; pollution;
        hazardous wastes
36 REI SO2 Maximum 24 hour SO2 concentration (microgram/m3) (average over last fiv e years) Pollution; attenuation rates; acid
  A concentration   rain
37 REI Fertilisers Tonnes of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilisers used per year Eutrophication; pollution; soil
  A   per square kilometre of agricultural land (average last five years) damage; loss of arable land
38 REI Pesticides Tonnes of pesticides used per square kilometre of agricultural land (average last five Pollution; soil damage; damage
  A   years) to reproductive systems of
39 REI Fisheries Number of new fisheries stocks or expanded fisheries efforts (greater than 20% Rate of resource depletion
  A stocks increase in catches) added to the country over the last five years (within territory)  
40 EDI Land Percent of land area degraded Rate of habitat loss
  A degradation    
41 EDI Water Mean percentage of water usage per year met from renewable and non-declining Sustainable use of surface free
  A resources sources water and groundwater; damage
        (including salinisation) of
        functionally non-renewable
        groundwater, rivers, lakes etc;
        habitat damage
42 REI Sub-surface Tonnes of mining material (ore + tailings) extracted per square kilometre per land Pollution; habitat disturbance;
  A mining area per year average last five years heavy industry
43 EDI Surface mining Percentage of land, rivers and coastal zone affected by mining and quarrying Habitat disturbance
44 EDI Terrestrial Percent of terrestrial zone set aside as reserves Increases resilience, pollution
  A reserves   attenuation, limits loss of
45 EDI Marine Percent of marine zone set aside as reserves (mean high tide to continent shelf) Increases resilience, pollution
  A Reserves   attenuation, limits loss of
46 EDI War / civil strife Number of war or civil strife years over the last 50 years within the territory Habitat disturbance; pollution;
  A     habitat degradation
47 EDI Legislation Environmentally related legislation with regulations Controls; management of goods
  A (discarded)   and services
48* EDI Sanitation Percentage of population with access to safe sanitation Eutrophication, groundwater
  A     pollution
49* EDI Genetically Area of land engaged in the agriculture or field testing of any genetically modified Genetic diversity, genetic
  A modified organisms pollution